In 2016 we marked the centenary of the “Convention between the United States and Great Britain (for Canada) for the Protection of Migratory Birds” (the Migratory Bird Treaty, for short). The 1916 treaty became the cornerstone of our national commitment to conserve birds. The Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918 implements the landmark 1916 treaty, and together the treaty and act form one of the oldest and most enduring bird conservation measures in the world. But threats to migratory birds today challenge the effectiveness of these milestones. Loss and degradation of habitat, collisions with human-made structures, predation by cats, pesticide poisoning, and oil spills cause the deaths of hundreds of millions of migratory birds each year. Are these century-old actions up to the task of protecting birds against 21st century threats? Aldo Leopold Foundation Senior Fellow Stan Temple will recount the first century of migratory bird protection and speculate about the future.